HOW MANY SPECIES OF MUNCHKINS ARE IN THE LAND OF OZ?
“We represent the Lullaby League …”–The Munchkins
“We represent the Lollipop Guild …”–The Munchkins in ‘The Wizard of Oz’
On this planet, there are five major kingdoms of life forms categorized as follows:
2/ One-Celled Organisms
3/ Mushroom, Molds, Fungi
4/ Multi-Cellular Plants
5/ Multi-Cellular Animals
The number of different forms of life–the tremendous variety of life on this planet–is virtually beyond comprehension. Think of how many different kinds of birds you’ve seen. Take a wild guess as to how many species of fish swim in the waters of the world. How many mammals or reptiles might there be, not to mention plants and insects?
Biologists are still trying to count the number of different life organisms on the planet. Consider the probability that an estimated TWO BILLION SPECIES have lived on Earth, of which as many as 99.9 percent are now EXTINCT! So, there probably aren’t that many left, right?
There are still estimated to be about 30,000,000 (thirty million!) different species of organisms still living on Earth. There are estimated to be more than 400,000 species of plants, alone. Do you like bugs? There are more than 1,000,000 species of insects (yes, that’s one million). There are 30,000 different subspecies of spiders! Not to mention the 30,000 species of beetles, 20,000 species of moths and 20,000 species of ants, bees and wasps. Researchers have estimated that for every human being there are one billion insects on Earth!
There are more than 9,000 species of birds, 4,000 species of mammals (1,700 are rodents), 10,000 species of roundworms, 4,000 species of amphibians, 21,000 species of bony fish and 6,000 species of reptiles. Don’t even think about the nearly unfathomable variety of invertebrate life in the oceans. Scientists will be working for a very long time to identify everything that lives in the waters of the world.
That’s just life in the macrocosm of Earth; i.e., just those life forms that we can see easily with the naked eye. How does this apply to the microcosm of relatively invisible animals?
There are 4,000 known species of bacteria. On the average human body, about 600 million bacteria live on the skin. The skin under your arms carries close to 500,000 bacteria and your forearm is a thriving metropolis that is home to over 12,000 bacteria per square inch! The bacteria population INSIDE your body is too numerous to count.
Then there are all the species of protozoa, algae, fungi and bacteria that eat carbon dioxide and hydrogen and produce methane as a byproduct.
In addition to the vast number of species, consider the fact that each individual cell in any complex organism is, in fact, a separate, distinct life entity. There are about 75 trillion cells in the average human body. The size of a single cell varies from the thickness of a few thousand atoms, to the largest single cell (an ostrich egg), measuring about 20 inches in diameter.
The sheer volume and diversity of life forms would seem to defy the probability of any coincidental, circumstantial, accidental or spontaneous development of the unthinkably vast, complex, intricately coordinated, precisely structured, cooperatively balanced, and yet, ingeniously bizarre, incongruously grotesque and downright peculiar variety of life on Earth. (Remember, we aren’t even counting the 99 percent of life forms that USED to live on the planet, which are now extinct!)
In the 150 years since Darwin and others have re-proposed the Theory of Evolution, no one has ever demonstrated it to be true. Not a single one of any of this immense number of species have ever successfully interbred and created a fertile reproductive combination of two different species.
The point is this: Darwin’s theory does not provide us with a workable solution. The missing pieces of the puzzle are still missing, namely: where did man and the other life forms on this planet come from?”
— Excerpted from the book, THE OZ FACTORS, by Lawrence R. Spencer
“We did not evolve up from matter; instead we devolved, or came down, from the realm of pure consciousness, spirit.” — Michael Cremo.”
Longtime Vedic scholar says humankind did not evolve from apes, rather, we devolved from a higher plane of consciousness into matter, as described in the Vedas, and how Alfred R. Wallace, whose theory of evolution by natural selection was published with Darwin’s, got co-credit until he later suggested that evolution was directed by cosmic intelligence. Where did we come from? Drawing upon a wealth of research into archeology, genetics, reincarnation memories, out-of-body experiences, parapsychology, cross cultural cosmology, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, Cremo provides a refreshing perspective.
“One of the principal reasons that Earth is a rough place to live is illustrated by the argument between Earth scientists who can’t agree on the basic formation of the Earth and the history of its formation.
There are two conflicting schools of thought on the subject of geology, each with their own theories. To better understand them, let’s review some basics on the entire subject.
GEOLOGY is the study of the structure of the Earth’s crust and the formation and development of its various layers, including individual rock types and early life forms found as fossils in rocks.
Based on the most reliable sources of information currently available, the Earth can best be understood as a slightly pear-shaped ball floating in space. It is held in orbit around a star by a balance of gravitational attraction and centrifugal force.
The mean distance of the Earth from its star is 92,897,000 miles. The star (our sun) is itself held in place relative to the Milky Way Galaxy and in turn to the rest of the universe by similar forces.
The Earth is moving through space at the rate of approximately 45,000 mph. The Earth’s orbit around its star is 583,400,000 miles, and the Earth travels along this orbit at a velocity of about 66,000 mph. Earth rotates on its axis once every 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.1 seconds. A point on the equator is therefore moving at a rate of a little more than 1,000 mph relative to its axis. The Milky Way galaxy as a whole, however, is moving toward the stellar constellation Leo at about 375 miles per second.
In addition to these primary motions, three other components of the total motion of Earth exist: the precession of the equinoxes, periodic variation in the inclination of Earth’s axis caused by the gravitational pulls of the sun and moon, and variation of latitude.
The cold, rigid, rocky crust of Earth extends to depths of 60 miles. Oceans cover approximately 70 percent of the surface of the Earth. The average depth of the oceans is 12,447 feet, more than five times the average height of the continents.
How stable is the real estate on which we Earth-bound Homo sapiens build our farmhouses?
Earth has a very, very thin outer layer comprised of two shells. The crust and upper mantle surrounds a core that becomes increasingly hot and viscous as you approach the center. The outer crust literally “floats” on top of this molten center.
The inside of Earth is relatively liquid, and the crust is relatively brittle. The crust has developed cracks throughout its entire surface as a result of having cooled down from a previously more liquid state, just like dirt cracks as it dries out in the hot sun. Therefore, this brittle crust has broken up into a dozen or so independently moving pieces called “plates”. Both the land masses and oceans are “floating” on top of these plates. Shearing of these partially molten rocks, which are about 60 miles thick, enables the continents to drift around the Earth’s core.
As the plates move, so do the oceans and land masses. As the plates pull apart from each other,the resulting cracksallow the molten rock underneath to “leak” out. This results in volcanic activity that can create newmountains or land masses. Conversely, the plates crash into, and rub against, each other.The result is an earthquake. And, sometimes new mountain ranges are pushed up or floods occur on the coastlines of land masses.
Considerable evidence from the fossils found in layers of rock around the world demonstrates that the existing continents of Earth were once part of larger land masses, called “super-continents”. Other continents have apparently been submerged beneath oceans, and still others have broken up into smaller pieces through the movement of the plates.
The most obvious evidence of this is that the continents of Africa and South America appear to fit together perfectly when seen from space. Even the mighty Himalayan mountains, the highest mountain chain on the planet, was once submerged beneath an ocean, as demonstrated by many species of trilobite fossils (ancient sea creatures) found throughout the mountains.
The entire contour of the Earth has now been mapped from space by a formerly top-secret Geostat satellite. These maps also show the contours of the ocean floors. Such a global map has recently been declassified and released by the United States Navy, which began the mapping process in 1987, to enable submarines to navigate safely around the world under the ocean. This map clearly shows the “stretch marks” of the planet where the existing continents have separated from each other and where the tectonic plates, or fault lines, exist around the planet.
The theory of Uniformitarian Geology assumes, much like the Theory of Evolution, that Earth spontaneously evolved from a chaotic cloud of cosmic dust particles in an orderly, gradual condensation, and continued through a progressive succession of small changes that have resulted in the existing lay of the land. (Of course, they do not say where the original “cosmic dust” came from. We’re supposed to assume that it was just there already.)
The theory of Cataclysmic Geology, on the other hand, assumes that the Earth was created and has progressed through a series of sudden disastrous concatenations which make living on planet Earth a very temporary, risky and unpredictable proposition:
1/ The magnetic poles of the planet shift periodically.
2/ The position of the land masses change continually and suddenly.
3/ Mountain ranges rise and fall.
4/ Ice ages come and go.
5/ Changing levels of the oceans flood the land randomly.
All together, the life forms of Earth have a rough time as the result of volcanoes, floods, ice ages, temperature changes, earthquakes, tidal waves, drifting land masses and the resulting famine and pestilence which ensue.
The less-than-exact science of Geology is subject to the same pitfalls of illogical thinking which seem to exist in the Land of Oz. Both sides of the argument are looking for an unobtainable absolute law of some sort. As usual, both schools of thought are missing information, have false information, and can’t get their dates straight. Each side of the argument is limited by its own assumptions and vested interests.
A workable solution to the mysteries of Geology probably lies somewhere in between and/or beyond the conflicting theories of Cataclysmic vs. Uniformitarian Geology.”
— Excerpt from THE OZ FACTORS, by Lawrence R. Spencer
“…there are millions of species [i] (Footnote) of insects. About 350,000 of these are species of beetles. [ii] (Footnote) There may be as many as 100 million species of life forms on Earth at any given time. In addition, there are many times more extinct species of life on Earth than there are living life forms. Some of these will be rediscovered in the fossil or geological records of Earth.
The current “theory of evolution” of life forms on Earth does not consider the phenomena of biological diversity. Evolution by natural selection is science fiction. One species does not accidentally, or randomly evolve to become another species, as the Earth textbooks indicate, without manipulation of genetic material by an IS-BE. [iii] (Footnote)
A simple example of IS-BE intervention is the selective breeding of a species [iv] (Footnote) on Earth. Within the past few hundred years several hundred dog breeds and hundreds of varieties of pigeons and dozens of Koi fish have been “evolved” in just a few years, beginning with only one original breed. Without active intervention by IS-BEs, biological organisms rarely change.
The development of an animal like the ‘duck-billed platypus’ required a lot of very clever engineering to combine the body of a beaver with the bill of a duck and make a mammal that lays eggs. Undoubtedly, some wealthy client placed a “special order” for it as a gift or curious amusement. I am sure the laboratory of some biotechnical company worked on it for years to make it a self-replicating life form!
The notion that the creation of any life form could have resulted from a coincidental chemical interaction moldering up from some primordial ooze is beyond absurdity! Factually, some organisms on Earth, such as Proteobacteria, [v] (Footnote) are modifications of a Phylum [vi](Footnote) designed primarily for “Star Type 3, Class C” planets. In other words, The Domain designation for a planet with an anaerobic atmosphere nearest a large, intensely hot blue star, [vii] (Footnote) such as those in the constellation of Orion’s Belt in this galaxy.
Creating life forms is very complex, highly technical work for IS-BEs who specialize in this field. Genetic anomalies are very baffling to Earth biologists who have had their memory erased. Unfortunately, the false memory implantations of the “Old Empire” prevent Earth scientists from observing obvious anomalies.”
“In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are often used, such as based on similarity of DNA or morphology. Presence of specific locally-adapted traits may further subdivide species into subspecies.
The commonly used names for plant and animal taxa sometimes correspond to species: for example, “lion,” “walrus,” and “Camphor tree,” each refers to a species. In other cases common names do not: for example, “deer” refers to a family of 34 species, including Eld’s Deer, Red Deer and Wapiti (Elk). The last two species were once considered a single species, illustrating how species boundaries may change with increased scientific knowledge.
Each species is placed within a single genus. This is a hypothesis that the species is more closely related to other species within its genus than to species of other genera. All species are given a binomial name consisting of the generic name and specific name (or specific epithet). For example, Pinus palustris (commonly known as the Longleaf Pine).
A usable definition of the word “species” and reliable methods of identifying particular species are essential for stating and testing biological theories and for measuring biodiversity. Traditionally, multiple examples of a proposed species must be studied for unifying characters before it can be regarded as a species. Extinct species known only from fossils are generally difficult to give precise taxonomic rankings to. A species which has been described scientifically can be referred to by its binomial names.
Nevertheless, as Charles Darwin remarked,
‘I look at the term species as one arbitrarily given for the sake of convenience to a set of individuals closely resembling each other …. it does not essentially differ from the term variety, which is given to less distinct and more fluctuating forms. The term variety, again in comparison with mere individual difference, is also applied arbitrarily, and for mere convenience sake.’
Because of the difficulties with both defining and tallying the total numbers of different species in the world, it is estimated that there are anywhere between 2 million and 100 million different species.” — Reference: Wikipedia.org
“Beetles are a group of insects which have the largest number of species. They are placed in the order Coleoptera, which means “sheathed wing” and contains more described species than in any other order in the animal kingdom, constituting about twenty-five percent of all known life-forms. Forty percent of all described insect species are beetles (about 350,000 species), and new species are frequently discovered. Estimates put the total number of species, described and undescribed, at between 5 and 8 million.
Beetles can be found in almost all habitats, but are not known to occur in the sea or in the polar regions. They interact with their ecosystems in several ways. They often feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, and eat other invertebrates. Some species are prey of various animals including birds and mammals. Certain species are agricultural pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, and the mungbean or cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, while other species of beetles are important controls of agricultural pests. For example, coccinellidae (“ladybirds” or “ladybugs”) consume aphids, scale insects, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops.” –– Reference: Wikipedia.org
[iii] “One species does not evolve to become another species, as the Earth textbooks indicate, without the intervention and manipulation of genetic material by an IS-BE.”
“Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification / manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms applied to the direct manipulation of an organism’s genes. Genetic engineering is not to be confused with traditional breeding where the organism’s genes are manipulated indirectly. Genetic engineering uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation. Genetic engineering endeavors have found some success in improving crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the manufacture of erythropoietin in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the oncomouse (cancer mouse) for research.
Since a protein sequence is specified by a segment of DNA called a gene, novel versions of that protein can be produced by changing the DNA sequence of the gene. The companies that own the modified genome are able to patent it. In the case of basic crops, the companies gain control of foodstuffs, controlling food production on a large scale and reducing agrobidiversity to a few varieties. The only apparent interest in promoting this tecnology appears to be purely economic, despite the claims of seed companies such as Monsanto and Novartis to solve the world food scarcity. It is now popularly understood that it is not the lack of food on a wholewide scale that is the main problem, but its distribution, aggravated by prohibitive tariffs by rich nations. Genetically modified crops do not reduce hunger. The majority of genetically crops are destined for animal food to meet the high demand for meat in developed countries. No genetic modification have yet to serve the needs of mankind despite all the promises in this direction.
However, even with regard to this technology’s great potential, some people have raised concerns about the introduction of genetically engineered plants and animals into the environment and the potential dangers of human consumption of GM foods. They say that these organisms have the potential to spread their modified genes into native populations thereby disrupting natural ecosystems. This has already happened.” — Reference: Wikipedia.org
“How much genetic variation is there? Historical debate: Classical school held that there was very little genetic variation, most individuals were homozygous for a “wild-type” allele. Rare heterozygous loci due to recurrent mutation; natural selection purges populations of their “load” of mutations. Balance school held that many loci will be heterozygous in natural populations and heterozygotes maintained by “balancing selection” (heterozygote advantage). Selection thus plays a role in maintaining variation.
How do we measure variation? To show that there is a genetic basis to a continuously varying character one can study 1) resemblance among relatives: look at the offspring of individuals from parents in different parts of the distribution; can estimate heritability (more later). 2) artificial selection: pigeons and dogs show that there is variation present; does not tell how much variation.” — Reference: http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BIO48/5.Geno.Pheno.HTML
“The Proteobacteria are a major group (phylum) of bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living, and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. The group is defined primarily in terms of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, and is named for the Greek god Proteus (also the name of a bacterial genus within the Proteobacteria), who could change his shape, because of the great diversity of forms found in this group.
All Proteobacteria are Gram-negative, with an outer membrane mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides. Many move about using flagella, but some are non-motile or rely on bacterial gliding. The last include the myxobacteria, a unique group of bacteria that can aggregate to form multicellular fruiting bodies. There is also a wide variety in the types of metabolism. Most members are facultatively or obligately anaerobic and heterotrophic, but there are numerous exceptions. A variety of genera, which are not closely related to each other, convert energy from light through photosynthesis. These are called purple bacteria, referring to their mostly reddish pigmentation.”
“In biological taxonomy, a ‘phylum’ is a taxonomic rank at the level below Class and above Kingdom. “Phylum” is adopted from the Greek φυλαί phylai, the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states.” — Reference: Wikipedia.org
“Blue stars are very hot and very luminous; in fact, most of their output is in the ultraviolet range. These are the rarest of all main sequence stars, constituting as few as 1 in 3,000,000 in the solar neighborhood. (Blue) stars shine with a power over a million times our Sun’s output. Examples: Zeta Orionis, Zeta Puppis, Lambda Orionis, Delta Orionis”.. — Reference: Wikipedia.org