Tag Archives: private banks

DO BANKSTERS RULE THE WORLD?

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“If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their  currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks…will deprive the people of  all property until their children wake-up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered…. The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs.”

Thomas Jefferson in the debate over the Re-charter of the Bank Bill (1809)

I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies.” – Thomas Jefferson

The modern theory of the perpetuation of debt has drenched the Earth with blood, and crushed its inhabitants under burdens ever accumulating.” –Thomas Jefferson

History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by  controlling money and its issuance.” – US President James Madison

 If congress has the right under the Constitution to issue paper money, it was  given them to use themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or corporations

– US President  Andrew Jackson

The Government should create, issue, and circulate all the currency and  credits needed to satisfy the spending power of the Government and the buying power of  consumers. By the adoption of these principles, the taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest. Money will cease to be master and become the servant of humanity.

– US President Abraham  Lincoln

Issue of currency should be lodged with the government and be protected from domination by Wall Street. We are opposed to…provisions [which] would place our currency and credit system in private hands.

– US President Theodore Roosevelt

Despite these warnings, US President Woodrow Wilson signed the 1913 Federal Reserve Act. A few years later he wrote:

I am a most unhappy man. I have unwittingly ruined my country. A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit. Our system of  credit is concentrated. The growth of the nation, therefore, and all our activities are in the hands of a few men. We have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most  completely controlled and dominated Governments in the civilized world no longer a  Government by free opinion, no longer a Government by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a Government by the opinion and duress of a small group of dominant men.

— US President, Woodrow Wilson

Years later, reflecting on the major banks’ control in Washington, President Franklin Roosevelt paid this indirect praise to his distant predecessor President Andrew Jackson, who had “killed” the 2nd Bank of the US (an earlier type of the Federal Reserve System). After Jackson’s administration the bankers’ influence was gradually restored and increased, culminating in the passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913. Roosevelt knew this history.

“The real truth of the matter is,as you and I know, that a financial element in the large centers has owned the government ever since the days of Andrew Jackson…”

– US President Franklin D. Roosevelt  (in a letter to Colonel House, dated November 21, 1933)

kennedyFor we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence, on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day. It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific, and political operations. Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried, not headlined. Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed. It conducts the Cold War, in short, with a war-time discipline no democracy would ever hope or wish to match.

— US President John F Kennedy  (in a speech made a few weeks before he was murdered by minions of the banksters.

______________________________________

COMMENTS FROM OTHERS ABOUT BANKSTERS:

“When a government is dependent upon bankers for money, they and not the leaders of the government control the situation, since the hand that gives is above the hand that takes… Money has no motherland; financiers are without patriotism and without decency; their sole object is gain.”

– Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, 1815

“The death of Lincoln was a disaster for Christendom. There was no man in the United States great enough to wear his boots and the bankers went anew to grab the riches. I fear that foreign bankers with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will entirely control the exuberant riches of America and use it to systematically corrupt civilization.”

— Otto von Bismark (1815-1898), German Chancellor, after the Lincoln assassination

“Money plays the largest part in determining the course of history.” Karl Marx writing in the Communist Manifesto (1848).

Money is a new form of slavery, and distinguishable from the old simply by the fact that it is impersonal – that there is no human relation between master and slave.” –

– Leo Tolstoy, Russian writer.

COMMENTS FROM THE COWARDLY, CRIMINAL BANKERS IN DEFENSE OF THEIR ATROCITIES AGAINST HUMANITY:

“The bank hath benefit of interest on all moneys which it creates out of nothing.”

— William Paterson, founder of the Bank of England in 1694, then a privately owned bank

“Let me issue and control a nation’s money and I care not who writes the laws.” –

– Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812), founder of the House of Rothschild.

“The few who understand the system will either be so interested in its profits or be so dependent upon its favours that there will be no opposition from that class, while on the other hand, the great body of people, mentally incapable of comprehending the tremendous advantage that capital derives from the system, will bear its burdens without complaint, and perhaps without even suspecting that the system is inimical to their interests.”

— The Rothschild brothers of London writing to associates in New York, 1863.

“I am afraid the ordinary citizen will not like to be told that the banks can and do create money. And they who control the credit of the nation direct the policy of Governments and hold in the hollow of their hand the destiny of the people.”

— Reginald McKenna, as Chairman of the Midland Bank, addressing stockholders in 1924.

“The banks do create money. They have been doing it for a long time, but they didn’t realize it, and they did not admit it. Very few did. You will find it in all sorts of documents, financial textbooks, etc. But in the intervening years, and we must be perfectly frank about these things, there has been a development of thought, until today I doubt very much whether you would get many prominent bankers to attempt to deny that banks create it.”

— H W White, Chairman of the Associated Banks of New Zealand, to the New Zealand Monetary Commission, 1955.

WHO OWNS THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANK?

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SOURCE:  http://www.save-a-patriot.org/files/view/whofed.html

Chart of who “owns” the Federal Reserve

Chart 1

Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of (Private, for Profit) Corporate and Banking Influence

Published 1976

Chart 1 reveals the linear connection between the Rothschilds and the Bank of England, and the London banking houses which ultimately control the Federal Reserve Banks through their stock holdings of bank stock and their subsidiary firms in New York. The two principal Rothschild representatives in New York, J. P. Morgan Co., and Kuhn,Loeb & Co. were the firms which set up the Jekyll Island Conference at which the Federal Reserve Act was drafted, who directed the subsequent successful campaign to have the plan enacted into law by Congress, and who purchased the controlling amounts of stock in the Federal Reserve Bank of New York in 1914. These firms had their principal officers appointed to the Federal Reserve Board of Governors and the Federal Advisory Council in 1914. In 1914 a few families (blood or business related) owning controlling stock in existing banks (such as in New York City) caused those banks to purchase controlling shares in the Federal Reserve regional banks. Examination of the charts and text in the House Banking Committee Staff Report of August, 1976 and the current stockholders list of the 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks show this same family control.


                                N.M. Rothschild , London - Bank of England
                                 ______________________________________
                                |                                     |
                                |                           J. Henry Schroder     

                                |                             Banking | Corp.
                                |                                     |
                          Brown, Shipley - Morgan Grenfell - Lazard - |
                           & Company        & Company       Brothers  |
                                |               |              |      |
            --------------------|        -------|              |      |
            |                   |        |      |              |      |
 Alex Brown - Brown Bros. - Lord Mantagu - Morgan et Cie -- Lazard ---| 
 & Son      |  Harriman       Norman     |    Paris          Bros     |
            |                   |        /      |            N.Y.     |
            |                   |       |       |              |      |
            |            Governor, Bank | J.P. Morgan Co -- Lazard ---| 
            |            of England    /  N.Y. Morgan       Freres    |   
            |            1924-1938    /   Guaranty Co.      Paris     |
            |                        /    Morgan Stanley Co.  |      / 
            |                       /           |              \Schroder Bank   
            |                      /            |              Hamburg/Berlin
            |                     /      Drexel & Company         /  
            |                    /       Philadelphia            / 
            |                   /                               /
            |                  /                           Lord Airlie
            |                 /                               /
            |                /     M. M. Warburg       Chmn J. Henry Schroder
            |                |      Hamburg ---------  marr. Virginia F. Ryan
            |                |         |               grand-daughter of Otto
            |                |         |                Kahn of Kuhn Loeb Co.
            |                |         |                        
            |                |         |                        
Lehman Brothers N.Y -------------- Kuhn Loeb Co. N. Y.                         
            |                |     --------------------------                     
   µ
            |                |       |                      |                     
           8
            |                |       |                      |
Lehman Brothers - Mont. Alabama   Solomon Loeb           Abraham Kuhn
            |                |     __|______________________|_________
Lehman-Stern, New Orleans   Jacob Schiff/Theresa Loeb  Nina Loeb/Paul Warburg
-------------------------    |       |                      |
             |               | Mortimer Schiff        James Paul Warburg
_____________|_______________/       |
|            |          |   |        |
Mayer Lehman |     Emmanuel Lehman    \
|            |          |              \
Herbert Lehman     Irving Lehman        \
|            |          |                \
Arthur Lehman \    Phillip Lehman     John Schiff/Edith Brevoort Baker
              /         |             Present Chairman Lehman Bros
             /  Robert Owen Lehman    Kuhn Loeb - Granddaughter of
            /           |             George F. Baker
           |           /               |
           |          /                |
           |         /           Lehman Bros Kuhn Loeb (1980)
           |        /                  |
           |       /             Thomas Fortune Ryan
           |      |                    |
           |      |                    |
      Federal Reserve Bank Of New York |
           ||||||||                    |
  ______National City Bank N. Y.       |
  |        |                           |
  |   National Bank of Commerce N.Y ---|
  |        |                            \
  |   Hanover National Bank N.Y.         \
  |        |                              \
  |   Chase National Bank N.Y.             \
  |                                        |
  |                                        |
Shareholders - National City Bank - N.Y.   | 
-----------------------------------------  |  
  |                                        /
James Stillman                            /
Elsie m. William Rockefeller             /
Isabel m.  Percy Rockefeller            / 
William Rockefeller          Shareholders - National Bank of Commerce N. Y.   
J. P. Morgan                 -----------------------------------------------
M.T. Pyne                    Equitable Life - J.P. Morgan
Percy Pyne                   Mutual Life - J.P. Morgan
J.W. Sterling                H.P. Davison - J. P. Morgan
NY Trust/NY Edison           Mary W. Harriman
Shearman & Sterling          A.D. Jiullard - North British Merc. Insurance
|                            Jacob Schiff
|                            Thomas F. Ryan
|                            Paul Warburg
|                            Levi P. Morton - Guaranty Trust - J. P. Morgan
|
|
Shareholders - First National Bank of N.Y.
-------------------------------------------
J.P. Morgan
George F. Baker
George F. Baker Jr.
Edith Brevoort Baker
US Congress - 1946-64
|
|
|
|
|
Shareholders - Hanover National Bank N.Y.
------------------------------------------
James Stillman
William Rockefeller
|
|
|
|
|
Shareholders - Chase National Bank N.Y.
---------------------------------------
George F. Baker

Chart 2

Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of Corporate and Banking Influence

– Published 1983

The J. Henry Schroder Banking Company chart encompasses the entire history of the twentieth century, embracing as it does the program (Belgium Relief Commission) which provisioned Germany from 1915-1918 and dissuaded Germany from seeking peace in 1916; financing Hitler in 1933 so as to make a Second World War possible; backing the Presidential campaign of Herbert Hoover ; and even at the present time, having two of its major executives of its subsidiary firm, Bechtel Corporation serving as Secretary of Defense and Secretary of State in the Reagan Administration.

The head of the Bank of England since 1973, Sir Gordon Richardson, Governor of the Bank of England (controlled by the House of Rothschild) was chairman of J. Henry Schroder Wagg and Company of London from 1963-72, and director of J. Henry Schroder,New York and Schroder Banking Corporation,New York,as well as Lloyd’s Bank of London, and Rolls Royce. He maintains a residence on Sutton Place in New York City, and as head of “The London Connection,” can be said to be the single most influential banker in the world.


                               J. Henry Schroder
                               -----------------
                                      |
                                      |
                                      |
                          Baron Rudolph Von Schroder
                           Hamburg - 1858 - 1934
                                      |
                                      |
                                      |
                            Baron Bruno Von Schroder
                            Hamburg - 1867 - 1940
 F. C. Tiarks                         |
 1874-1952                            |
     |                                |
 marr. Emma Franziska                 |
 (Hamburg)                    Helmut B. Schroder
 J. Henry Schroder 1902               |
 Dir. Bank of England                 |
 Dir. Anglo-Iranian                   |
 Oil Company         J. Henry Schroder Banking Company N.Y.
                                      |
                                      |
                       J. Henry Schroder Trust Company N.Y.
                                      |
                                      |
                                      |
                   ___________________|____________________
                  |                                        |
            Allen Dulles                              John Foster Dulles
          Sullivan & Cromwell                        Sullivan & Cromwell
          Director - CIA                             U. S. Secretary of State
                                                     Rockefeller Foundation

 Prentiss Gray
 ------------
Belgian Relief Comm.                     Lord Airlie
Chief Marine Transportation              -----------
US Food Administration WW I          Chairman; Virgina Fortune
Manati Sugar Co. American &          Ryan daughter of Otto Kahn
British Continental Corp.            of Kuhn,Loeb Co.
       |                                    |
       |                                    |
 M. E. Rionda                               |
 ------------                               |
Pres. Cuba Cane Sugar Co.                   |
Manati Sugar Co. many other                 |
sugar companies.                     _______|       
       |                            |
       |                            |
 G. A. Zabriskie                    |
 ---------------                    |                Emile Francoui
Chmn U.S. Sugar Equalization        |                --------------
Board 1917-18; Pres Empire          |            Belgian Relief Comm. Kai
Biscuit Co., Columbia Baking        |            Ping Coal Mines, Tientsin
Co. , Southern Baking Co.           |            Railroad,Congo Copper, La
                                    |            Banque Nationale de Belgique
             Suite 2000 42 Broadway | N. Y                      |
          __________________________|___________________________|_
         |                          |                           |
         |                          |                           |
    Edgar Richard            Julius H. Barnes             Herbert Hoover
    -------------            ----------------             --------------   
Belgium Relief Comm         Belgium Relief Comm       Chmn Belgium Relief Com
Amer Relief Comm            Pres Grain Corp.           U.S. Food Admin
U.S. Food Admin             U.S. Food Admin           Sec of Commerce 1924-28
1918-24, Hazeltine Corp.    1917-18, C.B Pitney       Kaiping Coal Mines
   |                        Bowes Corp, Manati        Congo Copper, President
   |                        Sugar Corp.                  U.S. 1928-32
   |
   |
   |
John Lowery Simpson
-------------------                      
Sacramento,Calif Belgium Relief                       |
Comm. U. S. Food Administration             Baron Kurt Von Schroder
Prentiss Gray Co. J. Henry Schroder         -----------------------
Trust, Schroder-Rockefeller, Chmn         Schroder Banking Corp. J.H. Stein
Fin Comm, Bechtel International           Bankhaus (Hitler's personal bank
Co. Bechtel Co. (Casper Weinberger        account) served on board of all
Sec of Defense, George P. Schultz         German subsidiaries of ITT . Bank
Sec of State (Reagan Admin).              for International Settlements,
            |                             SS Senior Group Leader,Himmler's
            |                             Circle of Friends (Nazi Fund),
            |                             Deutsche Reichsbank,president
            |
            |
Schroder-Rockefeller & Co. , N.Y.
---------------------------------
Avery Rockefeller, J. Henry Schroder
Banking Corp., Bechtel Co., Bechtel
International Co. , Canadian Bechtel
Company.          |
                  |
                  |
                  |
         Gordon Richardson
         -----------------
Governor, Bank of England
1973-PRESENT C.B. of J. Henry Schroder N.Y.
Schroder Banking Co., New York, Lloyds Bank
Rolls Royce

Chart 3

Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of Corporate and Banking Influence

– Published 1976

The David Rockefeller chart shows the link between the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Standard Oil of Indiana, General Motors and Allied Chemical Corportion (Eugene Meyer family) and Equitable Life (J. P. Morgan).


DAVID ROCKEFELLER
----------------------------
Chairman of the Board
Chase Manhattan Corp
      |
      |
______|_______________________
Chase Manhattan Corp.        |    
Officer & Director Interlocks|---------------------
------|-----------------------                    |
      |                                           |
Private Investment Co. for America       Allied Chemicals Corp.
      |                                           |
Firestone Tire & Rubber Company          General Motors              
      |                                           |
Orion Multinational Services Ltd.        Rockefeller Family & Associates
      |                                           |
ASARCO. Inc                              Chrysler Corp.
      |                                           |
Southern Peru Copper Corp.               Intl' Basic Economy Corp.
      |                                           |
Industrial Minerva Mexico S.A.           R.H. Macy & Co.
      |                                           |
Continental Corp.                        Selected Risk Investments S.A.
      |                                           |
Honeywell Inc.                           Omega Fund, Inc.
      |                                           |
Northwest Airlines, Inc.                 Squibb Corporation
      |                                           |
Northwestern Bell Telephone Co.          Olin Foundation  
      |                                           |
Minnesota Mining & Mfg Co (3M)           Mutual Benefit Life Ins. Co. of NJ
      |                                           |
American Express Co.                            AT & T   
      |                                           |
Hewlett Packard                          Pacific Northwestern Bell Co.
      |                                           |
FMC Corporation                          BeachviLime Ltd.
      |                                           |
Utah Intl' Inc.                          Eveleth Expansion Company
      |                                           |
Exxon Corporation                        Fidelity Union Bancorporation
      |                                           |
International Nickel/Canada              Cypress Woods Corporation
      |                                           |
Federated Capital Corporation            Intl' Minerals & Chemical Corp.
      |                                           |
Equitable Life Assurance Soc U.S.        Burlington Industries
      |                                           |
Federated Dept Stores                    Wachovia Corporation
      |                                           |
General Electric                         Jefferson Pilot Corporation
      |                                           |
Scott Paper Co.                          R. J. Reynolds Industries Inc.
      |                                           |
American Petroleum Institute             United States Steel Corp.
      |                                           |
Richardson Merril Inc.                   Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.
      |                                           |
May Department Stores Co.                Norton-Simon Inc.
      |                                           |
Sperry Rand Corporation                  Stone-Webster Inc.
      |                                           |
San Salvador Development Company         Standard Oil of Indiana

Chart 4

Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of Corporate and Banking Influence

– Published 1976

This chart shows the interlocks between the Federal Reserve Bank of New York J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp., J. Henry Schroder Trust Co., Rockefeller Center, Inc., Equitable Life Assurance Society ( J.P. Morgan), and the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.


 Alan Pifer, President
 Carnegie Corporation
 of New York
----------------------
         |
         |
----------------------
 Carnegie Corporation
 Trustee Interlocks       --------------------------
----------------------                            |
         |                                        |
Rockefeller Center, Inc                 J. Henry Schroder Trust Company
         |                                        |
The Cabot Corporation                   Paul Revere Investors, Inc.
         |                                        |
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston          Qualpeco, Inc.
         |
Owens Corning Fiberglas
         |
New England Telephone Co.
         |
Fisher Scientific Company
         |
Mellon National Corporation
         |
Equitable Life Assurance Society
         |
Twentieth Century Fox Corporation
         |
J. Henry Schroder Banking Corporation

Chart 5

Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of Corporate and Banking Influence

– Published 1976

This chart shows the link between the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Brown Brothers Harriman,Sun Life Assurance Co. (N.M. Rothschild and Sons), and the Rockefeller Foundation.


Maurice F. Granville
Chairman of The Board
Texaco Incorporated
----------------------
        |
        |
Texaco Officer & Director Interlocks  ---------------- Liggett & Myers, Inc.
------------------------------------           |
        |                                      |
        |                                      |
 L  Arabian American Oil Company            St John d'el Ray Mining Co. Ltd.
 O      |                                      |
 N  Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.           National Steel Corporation
 D      |                                      |
 O  Brown Harriman & Intl' Banks Ltd.       Massey-Ferguson Ltd.
 N      |                                      |
    American Express                        Mutual Life Insurance Co.
        |                                      |
 N. American Express Intl' Banking Corp.    Mass Mutual Income Investors Inc.
 M.     |                                      |
    Anaconda                                United Services Life Ins. Co.
 R      |                                      |
 O  Rockefeller Foundation                  Fairchild Industries
 T      |                                      |
 H  Owens-Corning Fiberglas                 Blount, Inc.
 S      |                                      |
 C  National City Bank (Cleveland)          William Wrigley Jr. Co
 H      |                                      |
 I  Sun Life Assurance Co.                  National Blvd. Bank of Chicago
 L      |                                      |
 D  General Reinsurance                     Lykes Youngstown Corporation
        |                                      |
    General Electric (NBC)                  Inmount Corporation
 

** Source: Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of Corporate and Banking Influence. Staff Report,Committee on Banking,Currency and Housing, House of Representatives, 94th Congress, 2nd Session, August 1976.

[END]


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HOW THE INTERNATIONAL BANKING SYSTEM CONTROLS PRISON PLANET EARTH

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Alien Interview - Way Back Home“1307 AD — The Knights Templar was disbanded by King Philip IV of France, who was deeply in debt to the Order. He pressured Pope Clement V to condemn the Order’s members, have them arrested, tortured them into giving false confessions, and burned them at the stake in an effort to erase his debt by seizing all of their wealth.  A majority of the Templars fled to Switzerland where they established an international banking system which secretly controls the economy of Earth.  “Old Empire” operatives act as an unseen influence on international bankers. The banks are operated covertly as a non-combatant provocateur to covertly promote and finance weapons and warfare between the nations of Earth. Warfare is an internal mechanism of control over the inmate population. The purpose of the senseless genocide and carnage of wars financed by these international banks is to prevent the IS-BEs of Earth from sharing open communication, cooperate together in activities that might enable IS-BEs to prosper, become enlightened, and escape their imprisonment.” — excerpted from the book  ALIEN INTERVIEW

The following “BEST DOCUMENTARY OF 2010” describes the factual details of how BANKERS control and enslave the human population of Earth.  This film may save your life and the lives of billions of people who will be murdered INTENTIONALLY by the covert, secret, hidden activities of PRIVATE BANKS (like the Federal Reserve Bank in the US and the International Monetary Fund, etc..)

UNDERSTAND OUR MONETARY SYSTEM

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“Some people think that the Federal Reserve Banks are United States Government institutions. They are private monopolies which prey upon the people of these United States for the benefit of themselves and their foreign customers; foreign and domestic speculators and swindlers; and rich and predatory money lenders.”

– The Honorable Louis McFadden, Chairman of the House Banking and Currency Committee in the 1930s

“The Federal Reserve (or Fed) has assumed sweeping new powers in the last year. In an unprecedented move in March 2008, the New York Fed advanced the funds for JPMorgan Chase Bank to buy investment bank Bear Stearns for pennies on the dollar. The deal was particularly controversial because Jamie Dimon, CEO of JPMorgan, sits on the board of the New York Fed and participated in the secret weekend negotiations.1 In September 2008, the Federal Reserve did something even more unprecedented, when it bought the world’s largest insurance company. The Fed announced on September 16 that it was giving an $85 billion loan to American International Group (AIG) for a nearly 80% stake in the mega-insurer. The Associated Press called it a “government takeover,” but this was no ordinary nationalization. Unlike the U.S. Treasury, which took over Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac the week before, the Fed is not a government-owned agency. Also unprecedented was the way the deal was funded. The Associated Press reported:

“The Treasury Department, for the first time in its history, said it would begin selling bonds for the Federal Reserve in an effort to help the central bank deal with its unprecedented borrowing needs.”2

This is extraordinary. Why is the Treasury issuing U.S. government bonds (or debt) to fund the Fed, which is itself supposedly “the lender of last resort” created to fund the banks and the federal government? Yahoo Finance reported on September 17:

“The Treasury is setting up a temporary financing program at the Fed’s request. The program will auction Treasury bills to raise cash for the Fed’s use. The initiative aims to help the Fed manage its balance sheet following its efforts to enhance its liquidity facilities over the previous few quarters.”

Normally, the Fed swaps green pieces of paper called Federal Reserve Notes for pink pieces of paper called U.S. bonds (the federal government’s I.O.U.s), in order to provide Congress with the dollars it cannot raise through taxes. Now, it seems, the government is issuing bonds, not for its own use, but for the use of the Fed! Perhaps the plan is to swap them with the banks’ dodgy derivatives collateral directly, without actually putting them up for sale to outside buyers. According to Wikipedia (which translates Fedspeak into somewhat clearer terms than the Fed’s own website):

“The Term Securities Lending Facility is a 28-day facility that will offer Treasury general collateral to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York’s primary dealers in exchange for other program-eligible collateral. It is intended to promote liquidity in the financing markets for Treasury and other collateral and thus to foster the functioning of financial markets more generally. . . . The resource allows dealers to switch debt that is less liquid for U.S. government securities that are easily tradable.”

“To switch debt that is less liquid for U.S. government securities that are easily tradable” means that the government gets the banks’ toxic derivative debt, and the banks get the government’s triple-A securities. Unlike the risky derivative debt, federal securities are considered “risk-free” for purposes of determining capital requirements, allowing the banks to improve their capital position so they can make new loans. (See E. Brown, “Bailout Bedlam,” webofdebt.com/articles, October 2, 2008.)

In its latest power play, on October 3, 2008, the Fed acquired the ability to pay interest to its member banks on the reserves the banks maintain at the Fed. Reuters reported on October 3: “The U.S. Federal Reserve gained a key tactical tool from the $700 billion financial rescue package signed into law on Friday that will help it channel funds into parched credit markets. Tucked into the 451-page bill is a provision that lets the Fed pay interest on the reserves banks are required to hold at the central bank.”3

If the Fed’s money comes ultimately from the taxpayers, that means we the taxpayers are paying interest to the banks on the banks’ own reserves – reserves maintained for their own private profit. These increasingly controversial encroachments on the public purse warrant a closer look at the central banking scheme itself. Who owns the Federal Reserve, who actually controls it, where does it get its money, and whose interests is it serving?

Not Private and Not for Profit?

The Fed’s website insists that it is not a private corporation, is not operated for profit, and is not funded by Congress. But is that true? The Federal Reserve was set up in 1913 as a “lender of last resort” to backstop bank runs, following a particularly bad bank panic in 1907. The Fed’s mandate was then and continues to be to keep the private banking system intact; and that means keeping intact the system’s most valuable asset, a monopoly on creating the national money supply. Except for coins, every dollar in circulation is now created privately as a debt to the Federal Reserve or the banking system it heads.4 The Fed’s website attempts to gloss over its role as chief defender and protector of this private banking club, but let’s take a closer look. The website states:

* “The twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks, which were established by Congress as the operating arms of the nation’s central banking system, are organized much like private corporations – possibly leading to some confusion about “ownership.” For example, the Reserve Banks issue shares of stock to member banks. However, owning Reserve Bank stock is quite different from owning stock in a private company. The Reserve Banks are not operated for profit, and ownership of a certain amount of stock is, by law, a condition of membership in the System. The stock may not be sold, traded, or pledged as security for a loan; dividends are, by law, 6 percent per year.”

* “[The Federal Reserve] is considered an independent central bank because its decisions do not have to be ratified by the President or anyone else in the executive or legislative branch of government, it does not receive funding appropriated by Congress, and the terms of the members of the Board of Governors span multiple presidential and congressional terms.”

* “The Federal Reserve’s income is derived primarily from the interest on U.S. government securities that it has acquired through open market operations. . . . After paying its expenses, the Federal Reserve turns the rest of its earnings over to the U.S. Treasury.”5

So let’s review:

1. The Fed is privately owned.

Its shareholders are private banks. In fact, 100% of its shareholders are private banks. None of its stock is owned by the government.

2. The fact that the Fed does not get “appropriations” from Congress basically means that it gets its money from Congress without congressional approval, by engaging in “open market operations.”

Here is how it works: When the government is short of funds, the Treasury issues bonds and delivers them to bond dealers, which auction them off. When the Fed wants to “expand the money supply” (create money), it steps in and buys bonds from these dealers with newly-issued dollars acquired by the Fed for the cost of writing them into an account on a computer screen. These maneuvers are called “open market operations” because the Fed buys the bonds on the “open market” from the bond dealers. The bonds then become the “reserves” that the banking establishment uses to back its loans. In another bit of sleight of hand known as “fractional reserve” lending, the same reserves are lent many times over, further expanding the money supply, generating interest for the banks with each loan. It was this money-creating process that prompted Wright Patman, Chairman of the House Banking and Currency Committee in the 1960s, to call the Federal Reserve “a total money-making machine.” He wrote:

“When the Federal Reserve writes a check for a government bond it does exactly what any bank does, it creates money, it created money purely and simply by writing a check.”

3. The Fed generates profits for its shareholders.

The interest on bonds acquired with its newly-issued Federal Reserve Notes pays the Fed’s operating expenses plus a guaranteed 6% return to its banker shareholders. A mere 6% a year may not be considered a profit in the world of Wall Street high finance, but most businesses that manage to cover all their expenses and give their shareholders a guaranteed 6% return are considered “for profit” corporations.

In addition to this guaranteed 6%, the banks will now be getting interest from the taxpayers on their “reserves.” The basic reserve requirement set by the Federal Reserve is 10%. The website of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York explains that as money is redeposited and relent throughout the banking system, this 10% held in “reserve” can be fanned into ten times that sum in loans; that is, $10,000 in reserves becomes $100,000 in loans. Federal Reserve Statistical Release H.8 puts the total “loans and leases in bank credit” as of September 24, 2008 at $7,049 billion. Ten percent of that is $700 billion. That means we the taxpayers will be paying interest to the banks on at least $700 billion annually – this so that the banks can retain the reserves to accumulate interest on ten times that sum in loans.

The banks earn these returns from the taxpayers for the privilege of having the banks’ interests protected by an all-powerful independent private central bank, even when those interests may be opposed to the taxpayers’ — for example, when the banks use their special status as private money creators to fund speculative derivative schemes that threaten to collapse the U.S. economy. Among other special benefits, banks and other financial institutions (but not other corporations) can borrow at the low Fed funds rate of about 2%. They can then turn around and put this money into 30-year Treasury bonds at 4.5%, earning an immediate 2.5% from the taxpayers, just by virtue of their position as favored banks. A long list of banks (but not other corporations) is also now protected from the short selling that can crash the price of other stocks.

Time to Change the Statute?

According to the Fed’s website, the control Congress has over the Federal Reserve is limited to this:

“[T]he Federal Reserve is subject to oversight by Congress, which periodically reviews its activities and can alter its responsibilities by statute.”

As we know from watching the business news, “oversight” basically means that Congress gets to see the results when it’s over. The Fed periodically reports to Congress, but the Fed doesn’t ask; it tells. The only real leverage Congress has over the Fed is that it “can alter its responsibilities by statute.” It is time for Congress to exercise that leverage and make the Federal Reserve a truly federalagency, acting by and for the people through their elected representatives. If the Fed can demand AIG’s stock in return for an $85 billion loan to the mega-insurer, we can demand the Fed’s stock in return for the trillion-or-so dollars we’ll be advancing to bail out the private banking system from its follies.

If the Fed were actually a federal agency, the government could issue U.S. legal tender directly, avoiding an unnecessary interest-bearing debt to private middlemen who create the money out of thin air themselves. Among other benefits to the taxpayers. a truly “federal” Federal Reserve could lend the full faith and credit of the United States to state and local governments interest-free, cutting the cost of infrastructure in half, restoring the thriving local economies of earlier decades.”

by Ellen Brown, J.D., who developed her research skills as an attorney practicing civil litigation in Los Angeles. In Web of Debt, her latest book, she turns those skills to an analysis of the Federal Reserve and “the money trust.” She shows how this private cartel has usurped the power to create money from the people themselves, and how we the people can get it back. Her eleven books include the bestselling Nature’s Pharmacy, co-authored with Dr. Lynne Walker, and Forbidden Medicine.