The Theory of Suffrage is often conceived in terms of an egalitarian election of representatives by ALL citizens. Theoretically, Suffrage applies to initiative and referendum.
Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but also the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally by elected or unelected representatives.
Until the nineteenth century, many Western democracies had property qualifications in their electoral laws; e.g. only landowners could vote or the voting rights were weighed according to the amount of taxes paid.
In the modern United States, as it has been throughout almost all of human history, voting to pass or prevent Legislation is bought and paid for through bribes from professional “Lobbyists” who represent private (corporate) interests. This form of government can also be known as Tyranny or Dictatorship or Oligarchy, or Privateering or Profiteering or Legalized Theft.
American Colonies Revolutionary War Currency (1779). Worthless paper invented by Benjamin Franklin as a way to raise money for the Revolutionary War against England.
United States of America “real” money currency — exchangeable for real gold, real property and the promise of freedom and prosperity for everyone who worked hard and smart.
Confederate States of America money (payable if the South won the Civil War)
Federal Reserve Note printed by a Private Bank (not worth the paper and ink used to print it, but exchanged for all the gold and real property in the U.S. in 1913, thanks to J.P. Morgan and other big time criminal bankers and politicians who control the “Federal Reservation” and all the people living on it.)
New World Order Private Zionist Bankers — “We Own The Entire Planet” Phoney Money use to steal all of the real property in the world using corrupt politicians, media control, tricks, lies and military power to guarantee protection for the criminals while the people who produce the goods and services get poorer and poorer every day.
Bildergerg-Rockyfeller-Kissassinger World Bank Money (Good for paying taxes, but hyper-inflation means you will have to work your ass off for an entire lifetime with nothing to show for it.)
Global Corporate Consumer Currency: You can spend it, when you get permission from a Corporate Commissar, to pay your taxes, a minimum food allowance, some water, shitty housing, and one pair of shoes every year (if there are any in stock).
GALACTIC CREDITS: Issued to Human Slaves to pay for bribes to Prison Guards for addictive drugs, polluted water and rotten food, if there is any left over.
A Derivative is a financial instrument with a value dependent upon underlying variables. The term can refer to a contract, or its value, derived from the underlying assets. The most common derivatives arefutures, options, and swaps but may also include other tradeable assets such as a stock or commodity or non-tradeable items such as the temperature (in the case of weather derivatives), the unemployment rate, or any kind of (economic) index. A derivative is essentially a contract whose payoff depends on the behavior of a benchmark.
One of the oldest derivatives is rice futures, which have been traded on the Dojima Rice Exchange since the eighteenth century.
Derivatives can be used for speculating purposes (“bets”) or to hedge (“insurance”). For example, a speculator may sell deep in-the-moneynaked calls on a stock, expecting the stock price to plummet, but exposing himself to potentially unlimited losses. Very commonly, companies buy currency forwards in order to limit losses due to fluctuations in the exchange rate of two currencies.
Derivatives are used by investors to:
provide leverage (or gearing), such that a small movement in the underlying value can cause a large difference in the value of the derivative;
speculate and make a profit if the value of the underlying asset moves the way they expect (e.g., moves in a given direction, stays in or out of a specified range, reaches a certain level);
hedge or mitigate risk in the underlying, by entering into a derivative contract whose value moves in the opposite direction to their underlying position and cancels part or all of it out;
obtain exposure to the underlying where it is not possible to trade in the underlying (e.g., weather derivatives);
create option ability where the value of the derivative is linked to a specific condition or event (e.g. the underlying reaching a specific price level).